How to Evaluate Embedded Software Testing Tools

You Can’t Evaluate a Test Tool by Reading a Data Sheet

All data sheets look pretty much alike. The buzzwords are the same: “Industry Leader”, “Unique Technology”, “Automated Testing”, and “Advanced Techniques”. The screen shots are similar: “Bar Charts”, “Flow Charts”, “HTML reports” and “Status percentages”. It is mind numbing.

What is Software Testing?

All of us who have done software testing realize that testing comes in many flavors. For simplicity, we will use three terms in this paper:

  • System Testing
  • Integration Testing
  • Unit Testing

Everyone does some amount of system testing where they do some of the same things with it that the end users will do with it. Notice that we said “some” and not “all.” One of the most common causes of applications being fielded with bugs is that unexpected, and therefore untested, combinations of inputs are encountered by the application when in the field.

Not as many folks do integration testing, and even fewer do unit testing. If you have done integration or unit testing, you are probably painfully aware of the amount of test code that has to be generated to isolate a single file or group of files from the rest of the application. At the most stringent levels of testing, it is not uncommon for the amount of test code written to be larger than the amount of application code being tested. As a result, these levels of testing are generally applied to mission and safety critical applications in markets such as aviation, medical device, and railway.

What Does “Automated Testing” Mean?

It is well known that the process of unit and integration testing manually is very expensive and time consuming; as a result every tool that is being sold into this market will trumpet “Automated Testing” as their benefit. But what is “automated testing”? Automation means different things to different people. To many engineers the promise of “automated testing” means that they can press a button and they will either get a “green check” indicating that their code is correct, or a “red x” indicating failure.

Unfortunately this tool does not exist. More importantly, if this tool did exist, would you want to use it? Think about it. What would it mean for a tool to tell you that your code is “Ok”? Would it mean that the code is formatted nicely? Maybe. Would it mean that it conforms to your coding standards? Maybe. Would it mean that your code is correct? Emphatically No!

Completely automated testing is not attainable nor is it desirable. Automation should address those parts of the testing process that are algorithmic in nature and labor intensive. This frees the software engineer to do higher value testing work such as designing better and more complete tests.

The logical question to be asked when evaluating tools is: “How much automation does this tool provide?” This is the large gray area and the primary area of uncertainty when an organization attempts to calculate an ROI for tool investment.

Anatomy of Test Tools

Test Tools generally provide a variety of functionality. The names vendors use will be different for different tools, and some functionality may be missing from some tools. For a common frame of reference, we have chosen the following names for the “modules” that might exist in the test tools you are evaluating:

Parser: The parser module allows the tool to understand your code. It reads the code, and creates an intermediate representation for the code (usually in a tree structure). Basically the same as the compiler does. The output, or “parse data” is generally saved in an intermediate language (IL) file.

CodeGen: The code generator module uses the “parse data” to construct the test harness source code.

Test Harness: While the test harness is not specifically part of the tool; the decisions made in the test harness architecture affect all other features of the tool. So the harness architecture is very important when evaluating a tool.

Compiler: The compiler module allows the test tool to invoke the compiler to compile and link the test harness components.

Target: The target module allows tests to be easily run in a variety of runtime environments including support for emulators, simulators, embedded debuggers, and commercial RTOS.

Test Editor: The test editor allows the user to use either a scripting language or a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI) to setup preconditions and expected values (pass/fail criteria) for test cases.

Coverage: The coverage module allows the user to get reports on what parts of the code are executed by each test.

Reporting: The reporting module allows the various captured data to be compiled into project documentation.

CLI: A command line interface (CLI) allows further automation of the use of the tool, allowing the tool to be invoked from scripts, make, etc.

Regression: The regression module allows tests that are created against one version of the application to be re-run against new versions.

Integrations: Integrations with third-party tools can be an interesting way to leverage your investment in a test tool. Common integrations are with configuration management, requirements management tools, and static analysis tools.

Later sections will elaborate on how you should evaluate each of these modules in your candidate tools.

Classes of Test Tools / Levels of Automation

Since all tools do not include all functionality or modules described above and also because there is a wide difference between tools in the level of automation provided, we have created the following broad classes of test tools. Candidate test tools will fall into one of these categories.

“Manual” tools generally create an empty framework for the test harness, and require you to hand-code the test data and logic required to implement the test cases. Often, they will provide a scripting language and/or a set of library functions that can be used to do common things like test assertions or create formatted reports for test documentation.

“Semi-Automated” tools may put a graphical interface on some Automated functionality provided by a “manual” tool, but will still require hand-coding and/or scripting in-order to test more complex constructs. Additionally, a “semi-automated” tool may be missing some of the modules that an “automated” tool has. Built in support for target deployment for example.

“Automated” tools will address each of the functional areas or modules listed in the previous section. Tools in this class will not require manual hand coding and will support all language constructs as well a variety of target deployments.

Subtle Tool Differences

In addition to comparing tool features and automation levels, it is also important to evaluate and compare the test approach used. This may hide latent defects in the tool, so it is important to not just load your code into the tool, but to also try to build some simple test cases for each method in the class that you are testing. Does the tool build a complete test harness? Are all stubs created automatically? Can you use the GUI to define parameters and global data for the test cases or are you required to write code as you would if you were testing manually?

In a similar way target support varies greatly between tools. Be wary if a vendor says: “We support all compilers and all targets out of the box”. These are code words for: “You do all the work to make our tool work in your environment”.

How to Evaluate Test Tools

The following few sections will describe, in detail, information that you should investigate during the evaluation of a software testing tool. Ideally you should confirm this information with hands-on testing of each tool being considered.

Since the rest of this paper is fairly technical, we would like to explain some of the conventions used. For each section, we have a title that describes an issue to be considered, a description of why the issue is important, and a “Key Points” section to summarize concrete items to be considered.

Also, while we are talking about conventions, we should also make note of terminology. The term “function” refers to either a C function or a C++ class method, “unit” refers to a C file or a C++ class. Finally, please remember, almost every tool can somehow support the items mentioned in the “Key Points” sections, your job is to evaluate how automated, easy to use, and complete the support is.

Parser and Code Generator

It is relatively easy to build a parser for C; however it is very difficult to build a complete parser for C++. One of the questions to be answered during tool evaluation should be: “How robust and mature is the parser technology”? Some tool vendors use commercial parser technology that they license from parser technology companies and some have homegrown parsers that they have built themselves. The robustness of the parser and code generator can be verified by evaluating the tool with complex code constructs that are representative of the code to be used for your project.

Key Points:

– Is the parser technology commercial or homegrown?
– What languages are supported?
– Are tool versions for C and C++ the same tool or different?
– Is the entire C++ language implemented, or are their restrictions?
– Does the tool work with our most complicated code?

The Test Driver

The Test Driver is the “main program” that controls the test. Here is a simple example of a driver that will test the sine function from the standard C library:

#include

#include

int main () {

float local;

local = sin (90.0);

if (local == 1.0) printf (“My Test Passed!n”);

else printf (“My Test Failed!n”);

return 0;

}

Although this is a pretty simple example, a “manual” tool might require you to type (and debug) this little snippet of code by hand, a “semi-automated” tool might give you some sort of scripting language or simple GUI to enter the stimulus value for sine. An “automated” tool would have a full-featured GUI for building test cases, integrated code coverage analysis, an integrated debugger, and an integrated target deployment.

I wonder if you noticed that this driver has a bug. The bug is that the sin function actually uses radians not degrees for the input angle.

Key Points

– Is the driver automatically generated or do I write the code?
– Can I test the following without writing any code:
– Testing over a range of values
– Combinatorial Testing
– Data Partition Testing (Equivalence Sets)
– Lists of input values
– Lists of expected values
– Exceptions as expected values
– Signal handling
– Can I set up a sequence of calls to different methods in the same test?

Stubbing Dependent Functions

Building replacements for dependent functions is necessary when you want to control the values that a dependent function returns during a test. Stubbing is a really important part of integration and unit testing, because it allows you to isolate the code under test from other parts of your application, and more easily stimulate the execution of the unit or sub-system of interest.

Many tools require the manual generation of the test code to make a stub do anything more than return a static scalar value (return 0;)

Key Points

– Arestubs automatically generated, or do you write code for them?
– Are complex outputs supported automatically (structures, classes)?
– Can each call of the stub return a different value?
– Does the stub keep track of how many times it was called?
– Does the stub keep track of the input parameters over multiple calls?
– Can you stub calls to the standard C library functions like malloc?

Test Data

There are two basic approaches that “semi-automated” and “automated” tools use to implement test cases. One is a “data-driven” architecture, and the other is a “single-test” architecture.

For a data-driven architecture, the test harness is created for all of the units under test and supports all of the functions defined in those units. When a test is to be run, the tool simply provides the stimulus data across a data stream such as a file handle or a physical interface like a UART.

For a “single-test” architecture, each time a test is run, the tool will build the test driver for that test, and compile and link it into an executable. A couple of points on this; first, all the extra code generation required by the single-test method, and compiling and linking will take more time at test execution time; second, you end up building a separate test harness for each test case.

This means that a candidate tool might appear to work for some nominal cases but might not work correctly for more complex tests.

Key Points

– Is the test harness data driven?
– How long does it take to execute a test case (including any code generation and compiling time)?
– Can the test cases be edited outside of the test tool IDE?
– If not, have I done enough free play with the tool with complex code examples to understand any limitations?

Automated Generation of Test Data

Some “automated” tools provide a degree of automated test case creation. Different approaches are used to do this. The following paragraphs describe some of these approaches:

Min-Mid-Max (MMM) Test Cases tests will stress a function at the bounds of the input data types. C and C++ code often will not protect itself against out-of-bound inputs. The engineer has some functional range in their mind and they often do not protect themselves against out of range inputs.

Equivalence Classes (EC) tests create “partitions” for each data type and select a sample of values from each partition. The assumption is that values from the same partition will stimulate the application in a similar way.

Random Values (RV) tests will set combinations of random values for each of the parameters of a function.

Basic Paths (BP) tests use the basis path analysis to examine the unique paths that exist through a procedure. BP tests can automatically create a high level of branch coverage.

The key thing to keep in mind when thinking about automatic test case construction is the purpose that it serves. Automated tests are good for testing the robustness of the application code, but not the correctness. For correctness, you must create tests that are based on what the application is supposed to do, not what it does do.

Compiler Integration

The point of the compiler integration is two-fold. One point is to allow the test harness components to be compiled and linked automatically, without the user having to figure out the compiler options needed. The other point is to allow the test tool to honor any language extensions that are unique to the compiler being used. Especially with cross-compilers, it is very common for the compiler to provide extensions that are not part of the C/C++ language standards. Some tools use the approach of #defining these extension to null strings. This very crude approach is especially bad because it changes the object code that the compiler produces. For example, consider the following global extern with a GCC attribute:

extern int MyGlobal __attribute__ ((aligned (16)));

If your candidate tool does not maintain the attribute when defining the global object MyGlobal, then code will behave differently during testing than it will when deployed because the memory will not be aligned the same.

Key Points

– Does the tool automatically compile and link the test harness?
– Does the tool honor and implement compiler-specific language extension?
– What type of interface is there to the compiler (IDE, CLI, etc.)?
– Does the tool have an interface to import project settings from your development environment, or must they be manually imported?
– If the tool does import project settings, is this import feature general purpose or limited to specific compiler, or compiler families?
– Is the tool integrated with your debugger to allow you to debug tests?

Support for Testing on an Embedded Target

In this section we will use the term “Tool Chain” to refer to the total cross development environment including the cross-compiler, debug interface (emulator), target board, and Real-Time Operating System (RTOS). It is important to consider if the candidate tools have robust target integrations for your tool chain, and to understand what in the tool needs to change if you migrate to a different tool chain.

Additionally, it is important to understand the automation level and robustness of the target integration. As mentioned earlier: If a vendor says: “we support all compilers and all targets out of the box.” They mean: “You do all the work to make our tool work in your environment.”

Ideally, the tool that you select will allow for “push button” test execution where all of the complexity of downloading to the target and capturing the test results back to the host is abstracted into the “Test Execution” feature so that no special user actions are required.

An additional complication with embedded target testing is hardware availability. Often, the hardware is being developed in parallel with the software, or there is limited hardware availability. A key feature is the ability to start testing in a native environment and later transition to the actual hardware. Ideally, the tool artifacts are hardware independent.

Key Points

– Is my tool chain supported? If not, can it be supported? What does “supported” mean?
– Can I build tests on a host system and later use them for target testing?
– How does the test harness get downloaded to the target?
– How are the test results captured back to the host?
– What targets, cross compilers, and RTOS are supported off-the-shelf?
– Who builds the support for a new tool chain?
– Is any part of the tool chain integration user configurable?

Test Case Editor

Obviously, the test case editor is where you will spend most of your interactive time using a test tool. If there is true automation of the previous items mentioned in this paper, then the amount of time attributable to setting up the test environment, and the target connection should be minimal. Remember what we said at the start, you want to use the engineer’s time to design better and more complete tests.

The key element to evaluate is how hard is it to setup test input and expected values for non-trivial constructs. All tools in this market provide some easy way to setup scalar values. For example, does your candidate tool provide a simple and intuitive way to construct a class? How about an abstract way to setup an STL container; like a vector or a map? These are the things to evaluate in the test case editor.

As with the rest of this paper there is “support” and then there is “automated support”. Take this into account when evaluating constructs that may be of interest to you.

Key Points

– Are allowed ranges for scalar values shown
– Are array sizes shown?
– Is it easy to set Min and Max values with tags rather than values? This is important to maintain the integrity of the test if a type changes.
– Are special floating point numbers supported (e.g. NaN, +/- Infinity)
– Can you do combinatorial tests (vary 5 parameters over a range and have the tool do all combinations of those values)?
– Is the editor “base aware” so that you can easily enter values in alternate bases like hex, octal, and binary?
– For expected results, can you easily enter absolute tolerances (e.g. +/- 0.05) and relative tolerances (e.g. +/- 1%) for floating point values?
– Can test data be easily imported from other sources like Excel?

Code Coverage

Most “semi-automated” tools and all “automated” tools have some code coverage facility built in that allows you to see metrics which show the portion of the application that is executed by your test cases. Some tools present this information in table form. Some show flow graphs, and some show annotated source listings. While tables are good as a summary, if you are trying to achieve 100% code coverage, an annotated source listing is the best. Such a listing will show the original source code file with colorations for covered, partially covered, and uncovered constructs. This allows you to easily see the additional test cases that are needed to reach 100% coverage.

It is important to understand the impact of instrumentation the added instrumentation on your application. There are two considerations: one is the increase in size of the object code, and the other is the run-time overhead. It is important to understand if your application is memory or real-time limited (or both). This will help you focus on which item is most important for your application.

Key Points

-What is the code size increase for each type of instrumentation?
– What is the run-time increase for each type of instrumentation?
– Can instrumentation be integrated into your “make” or “build” system?
– How are the coverage results presented to the user? Are there annotated listings with a graphical coverage browser, or just tables of metrics?
– How is the coverage information retrieved from the target? Is the process flexible? Can data be buffered in RAM?
– Are statement, branch (or decision) and MC/DC coverage supported?
– Can multiple coverage types be captured in one execution?
– Can coverage data be shared across multiple test environments (e.g. can some coverage be captured during system testing and be combined with the coverage from unit and integration testing)?
– Can you step through the test execution using the coverage data to see the flow of control through your application without using a debugger?
– Can you get aggregate coverage for all test runs in a single report?
– Can the tool be qualified for DO-178B and for Medical Device intended use?

Regression Testing

There should be two basic goals for adopting a test tool. The primary goal is to save time testing. If you’ve read this far, we imagine that you agree with that! The secondary goal is to allow the created tests to be leveraged over the life cycle of the application. This means that that the time and money invested in building tests should result in tests that are re-usable as the application changes over time and easy to configuration manage. The major thing to evaluate in your candidate tool is what specific things need to be “saved” in order to run the same tests in the future and how the re-running of tests is controlled.

Key Points

> What file or files need to be configuration managed to regression test?
> Does the tool have a complete and documented Command Line Interface (CLI)?
> Are these files plain text or binary? This affects your ability to use a diff utility to evaluate changes over time.
> Do the harness files generated by the tool have to be configuration managed?
> Is there integration with configuration management tools?
> Create a test for a unit, now change the name of a parameter, and re-build your test environment. How long does this take? Is it complicated?
> Does the tool support database technology and statistical graphs to allow trend analysis of test execution and code coverage over time?
> Can you test multiple baselines of code with the same set of test cases automatically?
> Is distributed testing supported to allow portions of the tests to be run on different physical machines to speed up testing?

Reporting

Most tools will provide similar reporting. Minimally, they should create an easy to understand report showing the inputs, expected outputs, actual outputs and a comparison of the expected and actual values.

Key Points

> What output formats are supported? HTML? Text? CSV? XML?
> Is it simple to get both a high level (project-wide) report as well as a detailed report for a single function?
> Is the report content user configurable?
> Is the report format user configurable?

Integration with Other Tools

Regardless of the quality or usefulness of any particular tool, all tools need to operate in a multi-vendor environment. A lot of time any money has been spent by big companies buying little companies with an idea of offering “the tool” that will do everything for everybody. The interesting thing is that most often with these mega tool suites, the whole is a lot less than the sum of the parts. It seems that companies often take 4-5 pretty cool small tools and integrate them into one bulky and unusable tool.

Key Points

> Which tools does your candidate tool integrate with out-of-the-box, and can the end-user add integrations?

Additional Desirable Features for a Testing Tool

The previous sections all describe functionality that should be in any tool that is considered an automated test tool. In the next few sections we will list some desirable features, along with a rationale for the importance of the feature. These features may have varying levels of applicability to your particular project.

True Integration Testing / Multiple Units Under Test

Integration testing is an extension of unit testing. It is used to check interfaces between units and requires you to combine units that make up some functional process. Many tools claim to support integration testing by linking the object code for real units with the test harness. This method builds multiple files within the test harness executable but provides no ability to stimulate the functions within these additional units. Ideally, you would be able to stimulate any function within any unit, in any order within a single test case. Testing the interfaces between units will generally uncover a lot of hidden assumptions and bugs in the application. In fact, integration testing may be a good first step for those projects that have no history of unit testing.

Key Points

> Can I include multiple units in the test environment?
> Can I create complex test scenarios for these classes where we stimulate a sequence of functions across multiple units within one test case?
> Can I capture code coverage metrics for multiple units?

Dynamic Stubbing

Dynamic stubbing means that you can turn individual function stubs on and off dynamically. This allows you to create a test for a single function with all other functions stubbed (even if they exist in the same unit as the function under test). For very complicated code, this is a great feature and it makes testing much easier to implement.

Key Points

> Can stubs be chosen at the function level, or only the unit level?
> Can function stubs be turned on an off per test case?
> Are the function stubs automatically generated (see items in previous section)?

Library and Application Level Thread Testing (System Testing)

One of the challenges of system testing is that the test stimulus provided to the fully integrated application may require a user pushing buttons, flipping switches, or typing at a console. If the application is embedded the inputs can be even more complicated to control. Suppose you could stimulate your fully integrated application at the function level, similar to how integration testing is done. This would allow you to build complex test scenarios that rely only on the API of the application.

Some of the more modern tools allow you to test this way. An additional benefit of this mode of testing is that you do not need the source code to test the application. You simply need the definition of the API (generally the header files). This methodology allows testers an automated and scriptable way to perform system testing.

Agile Testing and Test Driven Development (TDD)

Test Driven Development promises to bring testing into the development process earlier than ever before. Instead of writing application code first and then your unit tests as an afterthought, you build your tests before your application code. This is a popular new approach to development and enforces a test first and test often approach. Your automated tool should support this method of testing if you plan to use an Agile Development methodology.

Bi-directional Integration with Requirements Tools

If you care about associating requirements with test cases, then it is desirable for a test tool to integrate with a requirements management tool. If you are interested in this feature, it is important that the interface be bi-directional, so that when requirements are tagged to test cases, the test case information such as test name and pass / fail status can be pushed back to your requirements database. This will allow you to get a sense of the completeness of your requirements testing.

Tool Qualification

If you are operating in a regulated environment such as commercial aviation or Class III medical devices then you are obligated to “qualify” the development tools used to build and test your application.

The qualification involves documenting what the tool is supposed to do and tests that prove that the tool operates in accordance with those requirements. Ideally a vendor will have these materials off-the-shelf and a history of customers that have used the qualification data for your industry.

Key Points

> Does the tool vendor offer qualification materials that are produced for your exact target environment and tool chain?
> What projects have successfully used these materials?
> How are the materials licensed?
> How are the materials customized and approved for a particular project?
> If this is an FAA project have the qualification materials been successfully used to certify to DO-178B Level A?
> If it is an FDA project, have the tools been qualified for “intended use”?

Conclusion

Hopefully this paper provides useful information that helps you to navigate the offerings of test tool vendors. The relative importance of each of the items raised will be different for different projects. Our final suggestions are:

> Evaluate the candidate tools on code that is representative of the complexity of the code in your application
> Evaluate the candidate tools with the same tool chain that will be used for your project
> Talk to long-term customers of the vendor and ask them some of the questions raised in this paper
> Ask about the tool technical support team. Try them out by submitting some questions directly to their support (rather than to their sales representative)

Finally, remember that most every tool can somehow support the items mentioned in the “Key Points” sections. Your job is to evaluate how automated, easy to use, and complete the support is.

Binary Trading Offers a Boon for Bears and Bulls Alike In Volatile Markets

So perhaps you have been confidently trading the markets for years and doing rather well, or maybe you have been losing both money and confidence since the end of 2008. You are not alone. More traders, both bearish and bullish have been looking to secure their trading accounts and adopt more defensive strategies in current market climates.

Thankfully, a new way to trade markets has arisen which suits day traders, weekly traders or those who prefer to go long over the longer stretch and offers a way to profit from share trading, currency trading and commodities alike, namely binary trading.

Binary Bets (or binary options in the U.S.A.) are increasingly being adopted as a complementary strategy to other trading strategies or is replacing riskier market practice. The growth of this strategy is easily appreciated. Binary betting offers both financial fixed odds and simplicity of method.

Financial fixed odds means that you are more in control of profit generation for your account and it therefore offers greater security in trading and protection of your investments. Who wants to place a £2000 trade only to see your whole account wiped out in one fell swoop? Tragically, too many traders are seeing their profits savaged by current volatility and unprecedented market conditions.

Why is this method favoured? Look at how the binary betting strategy operates practically. It is not unlike futures or spread-betting, in so much that it works on a points based system.

Let’s say you are a day trader who wishes to trade for one day and you believe that the market / commodity / share price on this day is going to rise overall.

So you open a binary bet and are quoted a price of 48 for the UK market, etc. to close higher for that day. You decide to risk £5 per point. As binary bets work on a price of 0 – 100 this means that if you win, you will earn 52 x £5 i.e. £260. This figure is the 100 – 48 (cost of the bet) x the amount you stake, being £5. Had the market gone against you, you would know in advance that your loss would be exactly our stake x quoted points; i.e. 48 x£5… £240.

So, with the binary bet, there are no unlimited losses, nor any need to care how far the market moves one way or another, all you need is for the market to close higher by the end of the day and you will win.

Predict the up or down movements in your favoured trading instruments correctly for 51% of the time or more and you are achieving better risk control of your trading account, sound money management and effective profitability over the longer term. Couple this with powerful staking software and £2000 can realistically become £200,000 in two years.

So it makes perfect sense that an increasing groundswell of traders feel that binary bets and fixed odds products are an excellent tool for both new traders and more experienced traders alike. In the current unpredictable, volatile and riskier market conditions we are seeing presently, simple binary trading solutions with predictable financial fixed odds offer greater safety and protection in an increasingly defensive market atmosphere.

Contact Elm Trader for expert, ethical advice on how you can use binary trading to profit from an increasingly popular profitable strategy.

Binary Options Trading Site – 5 Important Pointers For Newbie Traders

Binary Options Trading is one of the popular ways to make money online. It involves investing money in commodity or stocks. If you are a new trader, you have to visit an online broker site to open your account and use its proprietary software to start the process.

However, you must know a few important pointers before creating an account and making the initial deposit:-

Pointer #1 – Site must be legitimate

  • Many sites are not legal and just created to fool people. Taking initial deposit as soon as possible is the sole purpose of such sites and the entire content will be planned and written accordingly.
  • So, you must check if it holds a valid license from regulatory bodies like CFTC, CySEC, ASIC, FCA etc.
  • It’s critical to verify the credentials by conducting your own research and ensure it is 100% genuine and authentic.
  • You can read reviews on Google and also try to reach fellow traders through social media, LinkedIn or other business directories. They will give honest and unbiased reviews to help in your decision.

Pointer #2 – Beware if you are getting many calls

  • If you are receiving unnecessary calls from the agents to deposit more money, it is a clear indication that there is something fishy about the site.

Pointer #3 – Realistic Promises

  • The site must offer realistic trading solutions to its customers and not just promote the software through catchy taglines like ‘100% Profit Guarantee’. These taglines lure the people to open an account instantly and lose their money later.
  • A good broker site will explain the features of the trading software in detail and how it can help to make consistent money online. It must explain the type of indicators and signals accurately.
  • A signal is a manual or automated indication that it is the right time to invest your money in a commodity or stock.

Pointer #4 – Information

  • Information is the core part of the research to make your decision easier.
  • You will find FAQ section to view the answers to many common questions. It will increase your knowledge and understand this business segment in detail.

Pointer #5 – Read Binary Options Software Reviews

  • There are many neutral review portals providing in-depth reviews of new and popular software with videos.
  • Reading these reviews and taking part in forum discussions with other investors can make your job easy.
  • It will help to find the right software to start hassle-free, safe and secure trading.

digital marketing social media marketing starting a business business ideas small business ideas online business marketing strategies online marketing internet marketing marketing strategy business strategy marketing companies online business ideas business marketing seo marketing seo optimization search engine marketing small business marketing business website own business business investment marketing ideas website marketing online marketing company how to promote your business business advertising digital marketing social media marketing starting a business business ideas small business ideas online business Commercial Property For Sale Apartments for rent Real Estate Developments Mortgage Rates Home Improvement Contractor Carpet Cleaning Equipment Bets Home Improvement Better Homes and Gardens Home Improvement Projects Bathroom Addition Home Improvement Ideas Home Remodeling Vehicle Electrical System Auto Parts and Service European Vehicle Market Auto Parts Web Marketing Marketing Concept Affiliate marketing Smart Affiliate Marketing Strategies Best Affiliate Programs Digital marketing Internet Marketing Services Free Online Slots Games Download Free Games Shooting Simulator Game Online Educational Games Best games for Android Online Games For Kids Free Online Learning Games and Apps Free Online Games Women's Clothing Clothing Online Wholesale Handbags Online Dresses Shopping Shop Wedding Dresses Online Shopping Electronics The Lawyer Bankruptcy Lawyer Law Firms Insurance Coverage Compare Cheap Car Insurance Cheap Car Insurance Affiliate Widget Binary Digits Digital marketing Internet Marketing Services affiliate strategy download automated trading program Binary Options Trading Binary options robot software New Binary Options Software Auto Trading Auto trading software Marketing strategy Commercial Insurance Principles of Insurance Central Insurance Companies health insurance companies Life Insurance Plans Simulation Games Android Simulation games Top Flight Simulation Games Funny Games Mobile Fun Games Download App Games‎ best free iPhone games Top Grossing iPhone Games Apps and Games Android Apps and Games Top free simulation games Simulation Games Android Simulation games General Products Law Firms Compare Lawyers The Lawyer Careers Commercial Lawyer Information About Lawyer Attorneys Personal Injury Lawyers Family Law business attorneys Woman Lawyer Black Lawyer Lawyer Definition Bankruptcy Lawyers employment law foreclosure law green law Business Law Attorneys Special Education Law Sex Crimes Law The Law of Theft Crime The Law of Drug Crime Embezzlement Law Law of Domestic Violence Law of Violent Crime Gun Crime Law The Law of Teen Crimes Murder Law The Lawyer The Business Law Legal Information Attorney Best Lawyers The Best Advice Lawyer Lawyer Requirements Lawyer Employment Law Reports Best Lawyers Justice Laws Website The Law Society Justice Law Limited Personal Injury Lawyer Justice and Law Studies The Justice Law Group Law and Justice Division Justice and legal Commercial lawyer Corporate Commercial Law Criminal Justice Degree Schools Criminal Justice Online Degree Programs School of Criminal Justice Legal Information General Medical Care Medical Physicals Immunizations Medical Checkups Specialist Referrals Family Nurse Practitioners Family Medicine Internal Medicine Pediatrics Behavioral Health General Family Dentistry Dental Services Cleaning Dental Services Extractions Dental Services Crowns and Caps Dental Services Root Canals Dentures and Partials Pediatric Dental Clinic Dental Health Services General Dentistry Journal of International Dental medical and dental Dental Managers Association Dental Plans Dental Practitioners Council Dental Clinic Dental Medicine Community Health Services New Patient Packet Medical Professionals Web Development Webshop Seo Web Marketing Web Tool Development Websites cheap price Free Web Design SEO Consulting Services Web Marketing Web Design Web Design projects Web Developers The Complete Web Developer Web Design Jobs Online Online Web Development Course web design agency Best Web Agencies Websites Best Website Designing Service Software Iphone Wedding Planning Wedding Planning Guide Wedding Websites wedding planning tips Small Wedding Planning Wedding Wedding Ideas Virgin on Wedding Night wedding definition quotes wedding definition of marriage find the meaning of wedding Wedding Planning Wedding Planning Guide Wedding Websites Technology Applications Phone System Software Information Technology Spy Phone Technology download Smartphone Spy Phone Technology Logistics Software Systems Software Developers Systems Software Developers Software Engineer Software Developer Education Car Insurance Compare Cheap Car Insurance Cheap Car Insurance Insurance Company International Life Insurance Insurance policy financial Commercial Insurance Principles of Insurance Food and Nutrition Success Business Marketing and Promotion Amelia Island Living Fashion Art Music Travel and Leisure Education Certified Business Travel Global Marketing Technologies Contractor Business Systems Guide to Health Care Quality Holiday Activity Guide Clean Water for Health Quotes About Education Online Fashion Shopping Guide Alternative Health Care Network Society Gambling Experts Medical Insurance Expert Financial Advice Sports Authority Business Systems Online Business and Government lawyer canada Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing Marketing vehicle technologies electrical Electrical System Vehicle Westerly Lawyers Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home and Garden Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Home Based Business Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Product Books and Ghostwriter Books and Magazines Accessories For You Clothes and Accessories Clothing Swap Parties Mens Designer Communications Business Telecommunication Recycling Key Safety and Security Personal Safety Cloud Computing Safety Stay Safe Online Financial Services Sector Arguments For Investing Banking and Financial Business Financial Services Financial Institutions Investing in Farm Popular Outdoor Gateway to Recreation Advertise Any Business Advertising Institute Internet Advertising Android Advertising Web Site Advertising Advertising Techniques Outdoor Toys Product Costing Viral Marketing Product Assembly Service Hardwood Floor Retail Distribution Promoting Products Make Money Essential Marketing Best Web Designer Web Design Tricks Good Web Design Web Design Service Online Web Design Web Design Program Photography Contest Photography Lens Baby Photography Photography Resource Photography Tutorials Wedding Traditions Wood Flooring Ideas My Country Home Popular Home Styles Classic Home Style Wood Kitchen Carts Interior Home Design Fitness Equipment Fitness Center Fitness And Nutrition Fitness Clothing Fitness Degrees Fun Games For Kids Fun Games To Play Fun Games For Adults Fun Game Barbie Fun Game Challenges strok.us outrok.us mtotrok.us oiitrok.us peitrok.us aelytrok.us filmfoodtrok.us brathtrok.us ooaakestrok.us oystowtrok.us ursandpinstrok.us devadtrok.us viofreklestrok.us bakiipitytrok.us thelsewifetrok.us unpspoontrok.us siblymoretrok.us vegetrok.us motoytrok.us nowningtrok.us smaloguetrok.us mouteruptrok.us haitehippytrok.us stoodqtrok.us ofeaesundaytrok.us karunuitrok.us myluvistrok.us myonmotrok.us vintseholdtastrok.us quiandytrok.us statetalestrok.us britdesigntrok.us riellakirstintrok.us jergurtistrok.us jordemilytrok.us joyknudsentrok.us luenhalltrok.us simrenetrok.us realroberttrok.us storiestrok.us thendahlstrok.us vestlifetrok.us whideountstrok.us txstephenstrok.us ashandtaytrok.us lromneytrok.us tuerperewtrok.us bangbagstrok.us odydaytrok.us akstakisstrok.us bluesindigotrok.us dabaloghtrok.us jaranottagetrok.us jaypatotetrok.us medladytrok.us prettylady21trok.us shellooktrok.us thegildedmoosetrok.us twohomestrok.us kristineampbelltrok.us gatohytrok.us pixfeedtrok.us subjetifytrok.us liZaeshoetrok.us alihtsupakestrok.us sumleedingtrok.us elinaminntrok.us kurashiarekoretrok.us tellyoutodaytrok.us uyutrok.us hineriorstrok.us aysmingtrok.us sarahshifttrok.us sorrisitrok.us thetvelblogtrok.us raflbournetrok.us theshopbugtrok.us iaoesignstrok.us deoratedlifetrok.us fromalofttrok.us labohemmetrok.us ofestherleetrok.us desderovertrok.us reatyhanneltrok.us mihearhtrok.us missiesuetrok.us notodaynottodaytrok.us paperokettrok.us purplejantrok.us sophiehensontrok.us sppikletrok.us theindsessionstrok.us swtpnaitrok.us adanetrok.us aploriggstrok.us bywathemoontrok.us folkitytrok.us taylaesigntrok.us betodreamstrok.us eots.us eoou.us eomto.us eooii.us eopei.us eoaely.us eofilmfood.us eobrath.us eoooaakes.us eooystow.us eoursandpins.us eodevad.us eoviofrekles.us eobakiipity.us eothelsewife.us eounpspoon.us eosiblymore.us eovege.us eomotoy.us eonowning.us eosmalogue.us eomouterup.us eohaitehippy.us eostoodq.us eoofeaesunday.us eokarunui.us eomyluvis.us eomyonmo.us eovintseholdtas.us eoquiandy.us eostatetales.us eobritdesign.us eoriellakirstin.us eola.euter.us eojergurtis.us eojordemily.us eojoyknudsen.us eoluenhall.us eosimrene.us eorealrobert.us eoseotories.us eothendahls.us eovestlife.us eowhideounts.us eotxstephens.us eoashandtay.us eolromney.us eotuerperew.us eobangbags.us eoodyday.us eoakstakiss.us eobluesindigo.us eodabalogh.us eojaranottage.us eojaypatote.us eomedlady.us eoprettylady21.us eoshellook.us eothegildedmoose.us eotwohomes.us eokristineampbell.us eogatohy.us eopixfeed.us eosubjetify.us eoliZaeshoe.us eoalihtsupakes.us eosumleeding.us eoelinaminn.us eokurashiarekore.us eotellyoutoday.us eouyu.us eohineriors.us eoaysming.us eosarahshift.us eosorrisi.us eothetvelblog.us eoraflbourne.us eotheshopbug.us eoiaoesigns.us eodeoratedlife.us eofromaloft.us eolabohemme.us eoofestherlee.us eodesderover.us eoreatyhannel.us eomihearh.us eomissiesue.us eonotodaynottoday.us eopaperoket.us eopurplejan.us eosophiehenson.us eosppikle.us eotheindsessions.us eoswtpnai.us eoadane.us eoaploriggs.us eobywathemoon.us eofolkity.us eotaylaesign.us eobetodreams.us strok.us outrok.us otrok.us oiitrok.us peitrok.us aelytrok.us odtrok.us thtrok.us kestrok.us towtrok.us ndpinstrok.us dtrok.us klestrok.us tytrok.us wifetrok.us ontrok.us moretrok.us etrok.us oytrok.us ningtrok.us guetrok.us teruptrok.us hippytrok.us stoodqtrok.us esundaytrok.us nuitrok.us istrok.us motrok.us dtastrok.us dytrok.us etalestrok.us esigntrok.us tintrok.us latrok.us rtrok.us rtistrok.us nudsentrok.us nhalltrok.us renetrok.us berttrok.us iestrok.us ahlstrok.us lifetrok.us deountstrok.us phenstrok.us dtaytrok.us eytrok.us perewtrok.us bagstrok.us daytrok.us akisstrok.us indigotrok.us loghtrok.us ttagetrok.us patotetrok.us adytrok.us tylady21trok.us ooktrok.us dedmoosetrok.us twohomestrok.us ampbelltrok.us trok.us edtrok.us etifytrok.us hoetrok.us upakestrok.us edingtrok.us aminntrok.us ksakoretrok.us teutodaytrok.us uutrok.us hirstrok.us aysngtrok.us sashittrok.us soritrok.us thlogtrok.us rafurnetrok.us thopbugtrok.us iagnstrok.us deedlifetrok.us frofttrok.us labommetrok.us ofeherleetrok.us desrovertrok.us reaanneltrok.us mihhtrok.us missuetrok.us notodaytrok.us pakettrok.us purantrok.us sopnontrok.us spletrok.us tionstrok.us swtnaitrok.us adatrok.us apriggstrok.us bythemoontrok.us fotytrok.us taylsigntrok.us betodamstrok.us saboe.us ouaboe.us oaboe.us oiiaboe.us peiaboe.us aelyaboe.us odaboe.us thaboe.us kesaboe.us towaboe.us ndpinsaboe.us daboe.us klesaboe.us tyaboe.us wifeaboe.us onaboe.us moreaboe.us eaboe.us oyaboe.us ningaboe.us gueaboe.us terupaboe.us hippyaboe.us stoodqaboe.us esundayaboe.us nuiaboe.us isaboe.us moaboe.us dtasaboe.us dyaboe.us etalesaboe.us esignaboe.us tinaboe.us laaboe.us raboe.us rtisaboe.us nudsenaboe.us nhallaboe.us reneaboe.us bertaboe.us iesaboe.us ahlsaboe.us lifeaboe.us deountsaboe.us phensaboe.us dtayaboe.us eyaboe.us perewaboe.us bagsaboe.us dayaboe.us akissaboe.us indigoaboe.us loghaboe.us ttageaboe.us patoteaboe.us adyaboe.us tylady21aboe.us ookaboe.us dedmooseaboe.us twohomesaboe.us ampbellaboe.us aboe.us edaboe.us etifyaboe.us hoeaboe.us upakesaboe.us edingaboe.us aminnaboe.us ksakoreaboe.us teutodayaboe.us uuaboe.us hirsaboe.us aysngaboe.us sashitaboe.us soriaboe.us thlogaboe.us rafurneaboe.us thopbugaboe.us iagnsaboe.us deedlifeaboe.us froftaboe.us labommeaboe.us ofeherleeaboe.us desroveraboe.us reaannelaboe.us mihhaboe.us missueaboe.us notodayaboe.us paketaboe.us puranaboe.us sopnonaboe.us spleaboe.us tionsaboe.us swtnaiaboe.us adaaboe.us apriggsaboe.us bythemoonaboe.us fotyaboe.us taylsignaboe.us betodamsaboe.us Sports Centre Sports Equipment Web Hosting Company Web Hosting Rates Cheap Internet Hosting Reseller Web Hosting Discover Internet Resources Strategies For Writers Top Internet Resources Importance of Branding Like E-Commerce Sites Social Commerce Commerce Review Sell Your E-book Self Publishing Book Public Libraries Higher Education Sector Quality Education Public Education Campus Education Own Estate Agent Real Regency Enjoy a Regency Home Improvement Gardening Tips Home Remodeling living Rooms Decorating Balcony Spaces All Medicine Reviews Should Health Care Health Care Costs Art and Hobbies Athens Art and Design Art and Culture Creative Hobbies shopping for clothes shopping garden shopping holidays motorcycles explained motorcycles equipment automobiles online livestock management livestock marketing Imperial Gardens Apartments Employer Services Online Business Consultants Small Business Trends advocate rates Heating Systems Home Automation Home Security Products Home Automation System Building Supplies Building Designer Building Consultants Bathroom Accessories Appliance Repairs trauma divates Personal Product Floor Coating Products Furniture Removal Garden Maintenance Garden Designer Interior Designer Interior Decorating Kitchen Design Landscape Construction Landscape Design Project Management Landscaping Patio Cover Installations photo diary inmates Home Access Control Home Alarm Systems Home Intercom Systems Home Security Card Access Plumbing Installation Home Entertainment System Home Improvement Mistakes Home Improvement Leads Home Improvement Tips Home Improvement Grants Home Improvement Stores Home Improvement Projects Green Home Improvements Advantages Ecommerce Benefits of Ecommerce Best Laser Printer Color Laser Printers Compare Laser Printers Dictionary Ecommerce Ecommerce and Internet Ecommerce Definition Ecommerce Information ecommerce website services Distributed File System The Politics Nation Software Technology Technology Applications Shipping Software Solutions Best games for Android Download Free Games Best Logistics Software Free Mobile Games Download Free Games Free Online Slots Games Shooting Simulator Shooting Simulator Game Web Development Webshop Seo Web Marketing Web Tool Development Websites cheap price Free Web Design SEO Consulting Services Web Marketing Web Design Web Design projects Web Developers The Complete Web Developer Web Design Jobs Online Online Web Development Course web design agency Best Web Agencies Websites Best Website Designing Service Web Design Company luxury condos Commercial Property For Sale Commercial Real Estate Commercial property Apartments for rent apartment finder service Find Apartments for Rent Apartment Luxury Homes Real Estate Developments Mortgage Rates Best Mortgage Rates Find a Home Inspector Online Home Inspector Patio Furniture Home and Patio Decor Center Home Patio Better Home Products home product business Home Remedies Kitchen Appliances Online Home Security Systems The Best Smart Home Security Systems Wireless Home Security Systems Home Design Ideas Home Decorating Ideas interior design ideas bedroom Bedroom Designs Small Bedroom Designs cheap insurance drivers cheap auto insurance view car insurance rates small business website how to market your business internet marketing company small business owner small investment business best online business business promotion online marketing agency small business seo local marketing small business advertising small business plan best small business invest in business marketing ideas for small business business to business marketing marketing strategies for small business internet marketing strategies marketing online seo marketing companies advertise my business best way to advertise social media for small business seo business online marketing services best way to advertise your business business and marketing online marketing strategies best business plan ways to advertise promote your business marketing your business best businesses to own advertise your business small business marketing consultant online marketing business small business advertising ideas best small business websites small business online marketing business plan starting a website business promote my business local business marketing small business marketing company digital marketing for small businesses ways to promote your business local internet marketing small business strategy best way to market your business marketing plan for small business online marketing for small business small business branding ways to advertise your business best seo companies for small business small business seo company ways to market your business best advertising for small business business promotion ideas make a business website small business marketing services best way to advertise small business internet marketing for small business start a small business online internet marketing business best way to promote your business business advertising ideas how to market my business small business promotion digital marketing businesses business marketing services marketing tools for small business marketing a new business business marketing ideas small business marketing agency online advertising business promote business online small business marketing firms marketing strategies for business business search engines market your business small business marketing help business i can start small business promotion ideas small business search digital marketing business Business Ownership Ideas Business Business Trends Business Mistakes business meetings Business Mastery Business World Bookkeeping Business Mobile Business Ideas Small Business Grant Business Brokers Small Business Brokers Business Development Global Businesses Best Business Business Magazines small business business plan Free Business Plan How to write a business plan Business Planning Business Brokers Small Business Services Online Business Services Online Services for Businesses Employer Services Online Business Consultants Business Online Payment Service Business services online affiliate Business service management Department of Small Business business services industry Small Business Trends Small Business News Small Business Advice Tips Small Business Small Business Banking Accounts